May 192011

Hi All,

I’m in the process of setting up PXE for some computers of mine, but I wanted them to have a separate configuration file as they do not have the power to run some of the other options, so I don’t want them to show up. I didn’t want to define specific IP addresses for the computers either or use IP specific configuration files as IP address may change.

So, what I did is to make a configuration file with the SYSUUID as the filename, since the SYSUUID is based off the mac address of the computer.
Then when it loads, the computer will boot off the SYSUUID configuration file instead of the default one.
You can find the SYSUUID on the boot page when a computer is booting from the network.

The SYSUUID is outlined in red, and quite long, but if a file is named that then the computer will boot off it, as that one is currently doing.

May 172011

Hi All,

In my previous post regarding booting Tiny Core Linux over PXE, we were booting a premade image that did not have much installed by default.
In this post, we will remaster the image into something usable that we can boot off by extracting all the files that we need and merging the directories then repacking it all into one. One of the advantages of doing it this way is that it lets you modify all the files in the root file system before you repack it all up.

What we will need to do is to get the tcz files for the applications we want to install, and merge them into the default tinycore.gz image. This will result in a larger tinycore.gz file but when the image is booted, applications will be pre-installed. This can be useful for diskless workstations in an office or netcafe for example.

So, onto the hard parts.

Step 1 – Getting the TCZ files

Ok, so once we’ve decided what software we want, we will need the TCZ files for the software we want.
This Site has a list of all the software we need and their dependencies, though it’s a bit tedious to download every single file as I haven’t found any other way to download what we need.

So, I took a shortcut.
Boot up Tiny Core Linux either using a virtual machine or real machine using PXE or some other boot media.
Install all the software you want via the app manager, and then all the files you need are in /tmp/tce/optional/.
To do this, you will need an internet connection on the computer that you’re booting Tiny Core on.

For me, I will install Firefox, OpenSSH (SSH Client and server), conky, pci-utils, and util-linux-ng, but you can choose what you want to install.
After I have installed the software, all the tcz files I need will be in /tmp/tce/optional/ and should look something like this :

After all the files are there, we will need to transfer them to a different computer to do the remastering.
In this case, I will be transferring them to my PXE server which will be doing the remastering.

Step 2 – Uncompressing Everything

Once we have all the tcz files where we need them, we will need to uncompress them as they are all compressed using squashfs.
We will need to install some additional tools to do that, namely squashfs-tools.

apt-get install squashfs-tools

Once that is installed, we can unsquash all the files so that we can access them like a normal filesystem.
I’ve written up a little script to do it all for me in this case :

for i in $( ls ); do
if [ ! $i == "" ] && [ -f $i ]; then
unsquashfs -f $i

I’ve named this, and have put this into the directory where all the tcz files are.
If you copy and paste this into a .sh file, don’t forget to make it an executable file by running :

chmod +x

After you run, you will have a directory called squashfs-root which will contain the contents of all the tcz files.

What you will also need, is the core of Tiny Core, the tinycore.gz file. This is a gzipped cpio file which contains the main file system of Tiny Core Linux.
You will want tinycore.gz in it’s own directory when you extract it to make things easier, I have used /tftpboot/tc/temp for that.
To extract tinycore.gz, you will need to run this command as root, or alternatively use sudo before this command.

zcat tinycore.gz | cpio -i -H newc -d

Step 3 – The Merge

Once you’ve extracted the contents, you should see something similar to this :

Looks just like the root file system of a Linux distribution doesn’t it ?
Now, we need to copy the contents of that squashfs-root directory that we created before into this directory.
I have the squashfs-root directory in the /tftpboot/tc/tcz directory, so the command I will be running is :

cp -Rp /tftpboot/tc/tcz/squashfs-root/usr/ /tftpboot/tc/temp/

Step 4 – Repacking Everything

After doing that, we need to repack everything up.
I have made another script for that –

find | cpio -o -H newc | gzip -2 > /tftpboot/tc/tc.gz

Once again, you will need to make the file executable and it should be placed in /tftpboot/tc/temp/.
Once run, this script will create the tc.gz file in /tftpboot/tc which will replace the tinycore.gz file.
I have also copied the kernel bzImage from the iso file into the /tftpboot/tc directory also.

Step 5 – Configuring PXE

Once all that is done, we now need to reconfigure pxe to boot the new Tiny Core initrd file.

LABEL tinycorerm
MENU LABEL Tiny Core 3.6 Remaster
kernel tc/bzImage
append initrd=tc/tc.gz

Should look something like :

So when you boot up the remastered Tiny Core, you should see Firefox in the dock – that’s if you chose to install it.

May 162011

Hi all,

I’ve had a play around with Tiny Core Linux recently, and I’m amazed at how they have fit in a window manager and some basic utilities into 10 megabytes.
You start off with a very basic system, consisting of only the Window Manager, and Application manager.

With Tiny Core Linux, you install applications by downloading the tcz files, and loading them via the Application Manager. Alternatively you can remaster the default image to add more applications, which I will also cover later on as it can work extremely well in conjunction with netbooting.

So without further ado, onto the simple process of PXE booting Tiny Core !

Step 1 – Getting Tiny Core

As always, we need to get the files we need first before we can boot from them.


We will grab the ISO file first, and then we will need to extract the files we need from the ISO.
Now from here, we have 2 options.
We can mount the ISO image and boot straight from that to achieve a basic system, or we can extract the files so that we can use them later on to create a remastered image for multiple use situations, e.g. net cafe or diskless workstations.

In this post, I will go with the former option of just mounting it and booting from that.
I will cover the extraction of files and remastering in the next post.

Step 2 – Mounting the ISO

We now need to create a directory on our tftp server so we have a place to mount the ISO file.

mkdir /tftpboot/tinycore

After we’ve done that, we can now use the mount command to mount the ISO in loopback mode.

mount -o loop tinycore-current.iso /tftpboot/tinycore

Once that’s mounted, we can now do a ls in /tftpboot/tinycore to see what’s in there.

ls /tftpboot/tinycore

Should see something similar to this :

This is the contents of the ISO file, which should contain just a ‘boot’ folder.

Step 3 – Configuring the boot menu

So once we have the files where we need them, we can now edit the pxelinux.cfg/default file to include Tiny Core.
We will need this codeblock in there :

LABEL tinycore
MENU LABEL Tiny Core 3.6
kernel tinycore/boot/bzImage
append initrd=tinycore/boot/tinycore.gz

So it should look something similar to this if you have been following my blog up until now :

Once that is complete, when you boot from the network, you should see Tiny Core 3.6 as an option in the menu now.

May 132011

Hi All,

Since I’ve recently done a post on how to setup a PXE network boot server, I thought I would do a few on distributions that can be booted through PXE.
First up, is xPUD. I’ve used this before for diskless workstations.
It is a packaged distribution suitable for light computer use with Firefox built in and also a media player.
Further applications can be added via use of additional opt packges which can then extend the functionality of xPUD.

In this post, I will just be booting a vanilla xPUD image from the PXE server.
The alternative way of booting xPUD via PXE is to extract the contents of the ISO file and using NFS to boot from the files themselves, but this is more complicated as it involves the use of an NFS server and permissions to setup. This will be something that I will cover in a different post.

Step 1

We will need to get the xPud image file first.


This will download the xPud image to the hard drive of the PXE server.

Step 2

Next up, we will need to move the file to the tftpboot directory.
Once again, I have chosen to have a subdirectory for xPud to keep it nice and tidy.

mkdir /tftpboot/xpud
mv xpud-0.9.2-image /tftpboot/xpud

Step 3

After we’ve copied the files over, we now need to modify the default file to setup the extra menu option so we can boot xPud.
Once you’ve added this codeblock, you should now be able to boot xPud over the network.

label xpud
menu label xPud 0.9.2
kernel xpud/xpud-0.9.2-image

It might take a little while to boot as the server needs to transfer ~45 megabytes over the network, but once it’s up and running, it’s all run from ram and should be pretty snappy.

May 102011

Hi All,

In Part 3, we will install Debian Squeeze using our new PXE server.

Quicklinks :
Part 1
Part 2

First thing we’ll need is the network boot tarball off the Debian Website.


This tarball will let you start installing Debian, but it will then install the rest of the software from the internet. Naturally this means that the computer will need an Internet connection to get the most out of this method.

After you get the tarball, you’ll need to uncompress it, and grab a couple of files out of it, namely linux and initrd.gz and put them into a subdirectory under tftpboot called debian, so you should end up with a directory like this : /tftpboot/debian which should contain the 2 files linux and initrd.gz

Now that we have the files in the right spot, we will need to create a new entry in the /tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default file.
So at the moment, we have this in the file.

DEFAULT menu.c32

LABEL Memtest4.10
MENU LABEL Memtest86+ 4.10
kernel boot/memtest86+

We will need to add a code block to give us the option to boot to the Debian mini installer.

LABEL DebSqueeze
MENU LABEL Debian Squeeze 6.0.1a Net Install
kernel debian/linux
append initrd=debian/initrd.gz

So the configuration file should look like this in the end :

Once that’s done, you should be able to boot from the PXE server like previously with the Memtest kernel, except it will be loading the Debian Net install files.

Once it’s loaded, you will get this screen –

Which looks exactly like it does as if the computer was booted from a CD.
You can now install Debian straight from the network without the use of a CD.